Abstracts of Presentations
Prof. Evyatar Erell, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Microclimate in Urban Planning
The English say that “Everyone talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it”. Global climate change notwithstanding, we cannot do much to change the weather – but how we design our cities may certainly impact upon how weather affects us. However, to generate good climate responsive urban design, we must ask the right questions. For example, knowing the intensity of the urban heat island may be of academic interest, but this knowledge, in isolation, might actually be of little value, or worse – misleading. To understand how microclimate affects pedestrian thermal comfort in outdoor spaces or energy consumption in buildings, we must consider the complex interaction of several factors. The talk will illustrate these issues with regard to three common design strategies: control of building density, use of vegetation and application of high-albedo materials – based on empirical studies and computer simulation.
In pursuit of the Net Zero Energy House: Lessons learned from architectural design in the Negev Desert
As our understanding of the complex inter-relationships among the various factors that affect building energy consumption has evolved, it has become clear that solutions that at first appeared to be straightforward were later found to have confounding effects that became apparent only with hindsight. Technology may hold some of the answers to the dilemmas faced by architects seeking to reconcile energy efficiency with convenience and quality of life in the buildings they design, but a better understanding of what drives people's interaction with their environment holds the key to their successful resolution. This may help to explain why green, energy efficient buildings still comprise a minute fraction of buildings currently being built, in spite of the claims of the designers of such building concerning their benefits – to the occupants and to society – and of the generally favorable publicity such buildings have received in recent years. The talk will begin with an overview of the barriers to widespread adoption of energy saving architectural design, in general. The complexity of the issue will then be demonstrated by means of a detailed exploration of glazing and façade design in sunny locations.
Francesco De Luca, Ph.D, Visiting Associate Professor at TUT Tartu College
Performative and parametric design
The increasing availability and usability of tools for daylight and energy simulation into parametric and generative design software facilitates the integration of environmental factors into the design process from the very early stages, improving the efficiency of the design processes and the performance of the buildings, giving to the designer new methodologies of work to create environmentally-aware performative architectural and spatial design. The presentation will focus on the new methodologies of integration of daylight and energy simulations into architectural design processes by parametric and generative computational tools.
Prof. Norbert Lechner, Auburn University, Alabama, United States
Passive Architectural Heating and Cooling
Passive solar heating and cooling are only two of the many strategies that make up solar responsive design, which includes not only the gathering of solar energy for heating, lighting, and the generation of electricity, but also the rejection of the sun’s energy through shading and the use of light colors.
The quickest and best way to move toward sustainability is to “pick the low hanging fruit first” which means using the easy and low cost strategies before the difficult and expensive ones. Thus, the following solar responsive design strategies should be in a design in the following order: orientation, form, color, window size/placement, shading, daylighting, active solar ventilation preheating, active solar hot water heating, and finally photovoltaics.
In a similar manner, passive cooling is achieved by first picking the “low hanging fruit” of heat avoidance. For example, by using efficient appliances and electric lighting less energy is turned into heating the indoors. Furthermore, more heat can be avoided by using daylighting, shading, and the use of light colors.
Integrating passive solar, daylighting, and shading. Scale Models vs Computer Simulation
The heating, cooling, and lighting needs of a building change over the day and over the year. For example, east windows need shading in the morning and west windows in the afternoon, while passive solar heating is needed only in the winter. In addition, the needs of buildings vary with climate and type. Any particular office building may need passive heating or not depending on the climate. However, it will need shading and daylighting in all climates. Instead of the mechanical and electrical systems making the adjustments by using much energy, the building fabric and especially the façade can make adjustments with little or no energy. In some cases, static systems using solar geometry can produce good results, but usually dynamic building devices are needed to adjust to the changes in the environment. The design of the building must be integrated so that the various systems can work together to create high performing sustainable buildings.
To create successful solar responsive designs, both solar geometry and solar strategies must be understood. Conceptually clear heliodons are the best tool for learning solar geometry and some of the solar strategies available for creating low energy buildings. When that basic understanding of solar responsive design has been achieved, the designer can use either computer simulation or a heliodon to create and test his or her solar responsive design. Without that initial introduction by a heliodon, it is difficult to successfully use computer modeling for several reasons. One common problem with the use of computers is expressed by “garbage in, garbage out”. Another problem is that programs are like black boxes that give results without explaining the logic. Thus, the best solar responsive buildings result when the designer first learns the basics with a conceptually clear heliodon and then uses whatever tool is most convenient for him or her in the design process.
Venkata Bandi, Ph.D student from Aalto University, Finland
Computational tools for energy efficiency
The renovation process of a building for improving energy efficiency performance generally involves different stakeholders in planning and implementation stages. In the planning stage, the main stakeholders are architects, building-owners, engineers, and urban planners. They need to decide on what energy efficiency measures to be implemented among a wide range of alternatives. Thus, they need computational aid to assess possible impacts of different alternatives. Given this context, the presentation explores compliance of computational tools for decision-support during early stages of building renovation process using normative analysis.
Prof. Arturs Lešinskis, Rīga Technical University
Sustainable cooling systems of the public buildings
The main aim of the presentation is to introduce the active systems in buildings for controlling environmental factors and to make aware of the inevitable collaboration between architects and engineers in building design and construction process. Framework of this presentation link up significant competences, guidelines and rules of thumb based on accumulated practical experience.
Prof. Seppo Junnila, Aalto University, Finland
Reasons for renovating old housing, energy-efficiency and feasibility: financial aspects of renovation projects
The presentation will talk about the topic ”Reasons for renovating old housing, how to do it in an energy-efficient way, and especially how to finance it” from three different perspective.
Firstly the key business and societal drivers for renovating the old housing stock to be more energy efficient is introduced. The global climate change challenge and EU’s climate and energy package with 20-20-20 targets. Secondly the investors’ perspective to the issue with different investment calculation approaches the traditional life-cycle costing and more advanced green discounted cash flow analysis is discussed. Finally the presentation is concluded by introducing the actual market premium for low energy construction on the market.
Sustainable retrofitting. Current Swedish cases of urban retrofitting of multi-dwellings from the 1960s-1970s
Retrofitting existing housing stock is significant in order to reach national and international energy and CO2 reduction targets for 2020 and 2050. Approximately a third of the building stock in Europe consists of multi-dwellings build in large scale with the first generation of industrialized building methods during the 1960s-1970s. There is now a great need for a cost-efficient retrofitting and an improved living standard for householders. This presentation will cover three examples from current retrofitting of urban areas in Sweden, including target ambitions, technical and non-technical solutions and predicted outcome.